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Scholars call for global moratorium on human gene editing following ‘CRISPR babies’ scandal - MedCity News, March 14, 2019

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June 19, 2019


The U.S. National Academy of Sciences and U.S. National Academy of Medicine joined the science academies of South Africa, Brazil, and Germany today in issuing calling for urgent worldwide action to reduce air pollution. The statement was handed over to senior United Nations representatives and diplomats from the four nations at a ceremony today in New York.

Air pollution is a cross-cutting aspect of many UN Sustainable Development Goals. Air pollution is estimated to contribute to the premature deaths of at least 5 million people worldwide per year, as well as to chronic health conditions such as heart disease, asthma, diabetes, and allergies, among others. The global economic burden of disease caused by air pollution across 176 countries in 2015 was estimated to be $3.8 trillion.

In the statement, the five academies propose the adoption of a global compact on air pollution to ensure sustained engagement at the highest level and make air pollution reduction a priority for all. Many technology and policy solutions are available to reduce air pollution, such implementing emission controls for industry and power plants or changing to clean fuels, providing access to clean fuels for households, enforcing rules to eliminate garbage burning, and using agricultural techniques to reduce crop burning.





June 18, 2019


Statement by Presidents on Climate ScienceRecently, questions have been raised about climate science. The National Academies have addressed many of these questions in our independent, evidence-based reports. We are speaking out to support the cumulative scientific evidence for climate change and the scientists who continue to advance our understanding.



June 13, 2019


©iStock.com/monkeybusinessimagesA centralized, consistently reported system of indicators of educational equity is needed to bring attention to disparities in the U.S. education system, says a new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Indicators — measures used to track performance and monitor change over time — can help convey why disparities arise, identify groups most affected by them, and inform policy and practice measures to improve equity in pre-K through 12th grade education.



June 12, 2019


©Elaine Ross/iStock.comCoral reefs around the world face growing danger from a changing climate, on top of the historic threats from local pollution and habitat destruction. In response, scientists are researching new interventions that have the potential to slow coral reef damage from warming and acidifying oceans. The interventions span a wide range of physical and biological approaches for increasing the stability of coral reefs, but they have only been tested at small scales. A new report from the National Academies examines these resilience tools and provides decision-makers with a process they can follow in considering whether to use one or more of the novel approaches.



May 22, 2019


International Commission Launched on Heritable Human Genome EditingAn international commission has been convened by the U.S. National Academy of Medicine, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and the Royal Society of the U.K., with the participation of science and medical academies around the world, to develop a framework for scientists, clinicians, and regulatory authorities to consider when assessing potential clinical applications of human germline genome editing. The framework will identify a number of scientific, medical, and ethical requirements that should be considered, and could inform the development of a potential pathway from research to clinical use -- if society concludes that heritable human genome editing applications are acceptable.



May 20, 2019


NAS President Marcia McNutt delivered the graduates on May 19, where she discussed trust in science and evidence, and the importance of making informed decisions.

On May 17, NAM President Victor Dzau , urging them to keep their commitment to patients at the forefront as they embark on a career in medicine.

NAS President Marcia McNutt NAM President Victor Dzau



May 16, 2019


©iStock.com/bowie15The changes in brain structure and connectivity that occur between the ages of 10 and 25 present adolescents with unique opportunities for positive, life-shaping development, and for recovering from past adversity, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The Promise of Adolescence: Realizing Opportunity for All Youth provides recommendations for capitalizing on these opportunities, and for addressing inequities — in education, health care, child welfare, and the juvenile justice system — that undermine the well-being of many adolescents and leave them less able to take advantage of the promise offered by this stage of life.



May 15, 2019


2019 EngineerGirl
Olivierclement of Engineering today of its 2019 EngineerGirl writing competition. This year's contest celebrates engineering design and problem solving, asking students in grades three to 12 to write a creative story in which women and girls save the day with their wits, skill, and whatever resources they can find.
 



May 15, 2019


©iStock.com/mashabubaA new National Academies report offers guidance to the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) on how to conduct a hazard assessment of nonpolymeric, additive organohalogen flame retardants (OFRs), which are used in some consumer products. OFRs cannot be treated as a single class for hazard assessment, the report says, but they can be divided into subclasses based on chemical structure, physical and chemical properties, and predicted biologic activity. The report identifies 14 subclasses that CPSC can use to conduct a class-based hazard assessment of OFRs. Such an approach is likely to be more efficient and less costly than the traditional approach of evaluating each chemical individually.



May 13, 2019


NAE Elects President, Foreign Secretary, and Four Councillors Olivierclement of Engineering has elected John L. Anderson, president emeritus and distinguished professor of chemical engineering at Illinois Institute of Technology, to serve a six-year term as the NAE's president. Anderson succeeds C. D. Mote, Jr., who has served one term as president. Elected to serve a four-year term as the NAE's foreign secretary is James M. Tien, distinguished professor and dean emeritus at University of Miami. The Academy also elected four members to its governing Council. All terms begin July 1, 2019.



May 10, 2019


Global Grand Challenges Summit 2019The U.S. National Academy of Engineering today announced five teams and an alternate, selected from more than two dozen U.S. competitors, to represent the United States in a business plan competition at the 2019 Global Grand Challenges Summit in London on September 12–18, 2019.



May 9, 2019


©iStock.com/nathaphatAssessments of a person's ability to function at work provide important information for disability determinations, and many validated tests are available to assess work-related physical and mental functions. However, because no single test of function is likely to provide all of the information needed to evaluate an individual's ability to work, it is important to consider information from multiple sources, including health records, functional assessments, and standardized reports from the applicant and relevant health care providers, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The report contains findings and conclusions regarding the collection of health data and the assessment of functional abilities that can help determine eligibility for Social Security disability benefits.



May 7, 2019


Reproducibility and Replicability in ScienceWhile computational reproducibility in scientific research is generally expected when the original data and code are available, lack of ability to replicate a previous study — or obtain consistent results looking at the same scientific question but with different data — is more nuanced and occasionally can aid in the process of scientific discovery, says a new congressionally mandated report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The report recommends ways that researchers, academic institutions, journals, and funders should help strengthen rigor and transparency in order to improve the reproducibility and replicability of scientific research.



May 6, 2019


On May 6, the science academies of the G-7 countries issued three joint statements to inform discussions during the G-7 summit to be held in August in France. In the statements, the academies call for strategies to maintain trust in science, manage the societal benefits and risks related to artificial intelligence, and maximize the benefits of citizen science in the Internet era. 



April 30, 2019


NAS members electedOlivierclement of Sciences announced today the election of 100 new members and 25 foreign associates in recognition of their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Forty percent of the newly elected members are women — the most ever elected in any one year to date.



April 28, 2019


NAS AwardsDuring a ceremony at its 156th annual meeting, the National Academy of Sciences presented the 2019 Public Welfare Medal to agricultural scientist, policymaker, and visionary leader Agnes Kalibata "for her work to drive Africa's agricultural transformation through modern science and effective policy, helping to lift more than a million Rwandans out of poverty and scaling impacts for millions more African farmers." NAS also honored 18 other individuals with awards for their outstanding scientific achievements.



April 26, 2019


NAS Annual MeetingOlivierclement of Sciences will hold its 156th annual meeting April 27-30. During the meeting, the Academy will elect new members, induct members elected in 2018, and present its 2019 awards recognizing excellence in research or public service. Various presentations and ceremonies will be . Follow the annual meeting activities on Twitter and join the conversation #NAS156.



April 26, 2019


Dzau named honorary citizen of SingaporeNational Academy of Medicine President Victor J. Dzau has been named Honorary Citizen of Singapore — the country's highest honor. Singapore's president Halimah Yacob awarded Dzau and Professor Sir John O'Reilly at a ceremony held at the Istana, the executive state house of Singapore.



April 23, 2019


David HamburgThe National Academies note with great sadness the passing of David A. Hamburg on April 21, 2019. Hamburg served as president of the Institute of Medicine from 1975 to 1980.

As president during its first decade of operation, Hamburg was instrumental in clarifying the role and focus areas of the IOM and laid the groundwork for productive relationships with Congress and federal agencies that remain fruitful to this day.



April 17, 2019


NAM Announces Collaboration with Johnson & Johnson Innovation in the Healthy LonOlivierclement of Medicine announced yesterday a first-of-its-kind collaboration with Johnson & Johnson Innovation as the principal corporate partner of the Healthy Longevity Catalyst Awards in the United States. The Catalyst Awards are part of the Academy's , which aims to create a worldwide movement to improve physical, mental, and social well-being for people as they age.

NAM President Victor J. Dzau and Johnson & Johnson's Global Head of External Innovation William N. Hait formally signed the agreement during a ceremony held April 16, 2019, at the National Academy of Sciences building.



April 12, 2019


Co-Chairs of Forensic Science Report Honored by Innocence NetworkHarry T. Edwards and Constantine Gatsonis, co-chairs of the committee that authored the National Academies' 2009 report , have been awarded the Innocence Network's 2018 Champion of Justice Award. Judge Edwards accepted the award at the annual conference of the Innocence Network.

The award "was created to honor individuals who go above and beyond in supporting and championing efforts that free the wrongfully convicted, and/or reform the criminal justice system to prevent wrongful convictions. Their work strengthens the integrity of the justice system, is imbued by their sense of fairness and professionalism, and demonstrates a lasting dedication to the fair execution of the law."

The award pays tribute to the National Academies' report on the 10th anniversary of its publication. (See a .) In notifying Edwards and Gatsonis about the award, the Innocence Project thanked the committee for the report, "which has truly transformed the state of forensic science and the involvement of the research community in service of criminal justice reform."



April 12, 2019


Cherry Murray and Peggy Hamburg Elected Co-Chairs of IAPCherry Murray, a member of NAS and NAE, and Peggy Hamburg, NAM member and foreign secretary, have been elected as co-chairs of the at the in Songdo, South Korea. IAP is the global network of over 140 science, engineering, and medical academies working together to provide independent, expert advice on scientific, technological, and health issues. Over the course of her career in physics, Murray has held prominent appointments in industry, academia, and the public sector, while Hamburg is a distinguished physician and public health administrator as well as president of the . Murray and Hamburg were nominated by NAS President Marcia McNutt and NAM President Victor Dzau, respectively.



April 10, 2019


Nobel/Kavli Prize Winners Event 2019; photo by Kevin AllenFrom revolutionizing cancer care to modeling the economic impact of climate change, recent winners of Nobel and Kavli Prizes have explored virtually every angle of science. On Tuesday afternoon and evening, the National Academy of Sciences honored 10 of these esteemed individuals at events on Capitol Hill and at the NAS building.



April 10, 2019


©iStock.com/Steve DebenportThe U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs should expand the requirement in its disability compensation process regarding who can diagnose traumatic brain injury (TBI) to include any health care professional with pertinent and ongoing brain injury training and experience, says a new congressionally mandated report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Currently, one of four specialties must diagnose TBI — a neurologist, neurosurgeon, physiatrist, or psychiatrist — but the report says that it is the training and experience, not necessarily the medical specialty that renders a health care provider capable of an accurate diagnosis.



April 10, 2019


©iStock.com/vmNational Academies have joined with over 40 colleges, universities, and research institutions to launch an Action Collaborative on Preventing Sexual Harassment in Higher Education. The purpose of the action collaborative is to bring together academic leaders and key stakeholders to prevent sexual harassment across all disciplines and among all people in higher education. The action collaborative is designed to be an active space where colleges, universities, and research and training organizations can research and develop efforts that move beyond basic legal compliance to evidence-based policies and practices for addressing and preventing all forms of sexual harassment.



April 8, 2019


right to left: NAS President Marcia McNutt; President of Israel Reuven (Ruvi) Rivlin; and IASH President Nili Cohen (photo by Amos Ben Gershom/GPO)National Academy of Sciences President Marcia McNutt and Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities President Nili Cohen signed a historic cooperation agreement yesterday to benefit outstanding scientists in both countries and to formalize cooperative relations between the two countries' scientific communities. The signing took place in the presence of Reuven Rivlin, president of the State of Israel.

Under the terms of the agreement, annual national scientific conferences with the participation of dozens of leading scientists will take place alternately in Israel and the United States. The accord also provides for annual binational exchanges of eminent scientists and scholars, who will hold meetings and seminars at local academic institutions and deliver public lectures.



April 5, 2019


U.S. Air Force photoA new report from the National Academies examines the effects and efficacy of using dispersants in marine oil spill response. Dispersants reduce oil at the water's surface by promoting the formation and diffusion of small oil droplets that may biodegrade more readily. Field and modeling studies show that dispersants can be a useful tool for oil spill response, the report says. By reducing the amount of surface oil, dispersants can reduce response personnel's potential exposure to hazardous compounds in oil and lessen the extent of surface oil encountered by marine species.



March 29, 2019


Photo by Dominick Del Vecchio/FEMAUrban flooding is a complex and distinct kind of flooding, compounded by land use and high population density, and it requires a different approach to assess and manage, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The report calls for multi-agency and cross-jurisdictional efforts to assess urban flood hazards, advance understanding of social impacts, and effectively communicate urban flood risk.



March 28, 2019


Photo by B. Bartel, U.S. Fish and Wildlife ServiceCurrent evidence supports the classification of the contemporary red wolf as a distinct species of wolf, although additional genomic evidence from historic wolf specimens could change that assessment, says a new National Academies report. It also concludes that the Mexican gray wolf is a valid subspecies of gray wolf.



March 27, 2019


The Gulf Research Program of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine today announced a new funding opportunity under its Healthy Ecosystems Initiative. Up to $5 million is available to fund research projects that will improve understanding of how coastal ecosystems in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico region are affected by or interact with natural processes and human activities for the purpose of informing natural resource decision-making and management practices.



March 20, 2019


©iStock.com/DNY59Although three U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved medications to treat opioid use disorder (OUD) are safe and effective, most people who could benefit from these treatments do not receive them, and access is inequitable, especially among certain subpopulations, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Medications for Opioid Use Disorder Save Lives says that withholding or failing to have available these medications for the treatment of OUD in any care or criminal justice setting is denying appropriate medical treatment. 



March 20, 2019


©iStock.com/Javier_Art_Photography A new report from the National Academies recommends steps U.S. communities can take to better measure their progress in building resilience to disasters, including measuring resilience around multiple dimensions of a community, and incentivizing the measurement of resilience. The report also recommends that the National Academies' Gulf Research Program develop a major, coordinated initiative around building or enhancing community resilience across the Gulf of Mexico region.



March 19, 2019


Karen Keskulla Uhlenbeck. Photo credit: Andrea Kane, Institute for Advanced Study. The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters will award the Abel Prize in Mathematics for 2019 to of the University of Texas at Austin “for her pioneering achievements in geometric partial differential equations, gauge theory, and integrable systems, and for the fundamental impact of her work on analysis, geometry, and mathematical physics.”

Established in 2002, the Abel Prize recognizes contributions to the field of mathematics that are of extraordinary depth and influence. The prize amount is NOK 6 million. Visit for more information on the prize.



March 15, 2019


Two Grainger Foundation Frontiers of Engineering Grants of $30,000 each have been awarded to attendees of the National Academy of Engineering’s 2018 U.S. Frontiers of Engineering Symposium. The grants provide seed funding to enable further pursuit of important new interdisciplinary research and projects stimulated by the symposia.



March 13, 2019


©iStock.com/alluranetIn response to a that calls for a moratorium on clinical uses of heritable genome editing and the establishment of an international governance framework, by the presidents of the National Academy of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and the Royal Society says that the commentary "underscores the urgent need for an internationally accepted framework that addresses these complex scientific, ethical, and societal issues. 

"Toward that end, the U.S. National Academies and the Royal Society are leading an international commission to detail the scientific and the ethical issues that must be considered in planning any genome editing, and to define specific criteria and standards for evaluating whether proposed clinical trials or applications that involve germline editing should be permitted."



March 13, 2019


Russian and U.S. Academies Sign Agreement to Continue Cooperation The president of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the presidents of NAS, NAE, and NAM have signed a five-year agreement to continue their cooperation on studies, workshops, and other activities in areas of mutual interest, marking 60 years of cooperation between the Russian and U.S. academies.



March 8, 2019


Facts About Vaccine SafetyThe current measles outbreaks in the United States and elsewhere are being fueled by misinformation about the safety of vaccines. To help counter such misinformation, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine that provides clear, concise, and evidence-based answers to questions about vaccine safety and other commonly asked questions about health and science. The evidence base includes a number of our studies examining vaccine access, safety, scheduling, and possible side effects. Our work has validated that the science is clear — vaccines are extremely safe.



March 7, 2018


The Editorial Board of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences has published by PNAS in 2018 to receive the Cozzarelli Prize, an award that recognizes outstanding contributions to the scientific disciplines represented by the National Academy of Sciences. Papers were chosen from the more than 3,200 research articles that appeared in the journal last year.



March 6, 2019


McNutt before House Science Committee on March 6, 2019 (photo by Cable Risdon)Marcia McNutt, president of the National Academy of Sciences, spoke to the U.S. House Science, Space, and Technology Committee about "Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Science and Technology."



March 6, 2019


G20 Science Academies StatementRepresentatives from the national academies of sciences of the G20 countries handed over for improving marine conservation to the Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe today in Tokyo, for later consultation at this year's G20 summit. The statement was jointly drafted by the G20 National Academies of Sciences under the leadership of the Science Council of Japan. The G20 summit will take place on June 28 and 29 in Osaka, Japan.



March 6, 2019


The of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine today announced a new funding opportunity to provide up to $2.5 million in grants to foster innovative approaches that support its ongoing efforts to improve understanding and prediction of the Gulf of Mexico Loop Current System.



March 5, 2019


©iStock.com/donald_gruenerA new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine reviews current evidence and updates intake recommendations known as the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for sodium and potassium that were established in 2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium revises the Adequate Intakes (AIs), which are the best estimate of intakes assumed adequate for apparently healthy individuals. The report reaffirms the sodium AI for individuals ages 14-50, decreases the sodium AIs for children age 1-13, increases the sodium AIs for adults ages 51 and older, and decreases the potassium AIs for individuals age 1 and older. The report also uses guidance from a 2017 National Academies report to introduce the first DRI specific to chronic disease risk reduction.



March 5, 2019


©iStock.com/loops7A new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine recommends that the U.S. Intelligence Community make sustained collaboration with researchers in the social and behavioral sciences a key priority as it develops research objectives for the coming decade.



March 4, 2019


DOE photoA new report from the National Academies recommends changes in the way that the U.S. Department of Energy manages science and technology (S&T) development in order to accelerate the cleanup of radioactive waste and contaminated soil, groundwater, and facilities at U.S. nuclear weapons sites. A portion of DOE's technology development should focus on breakthrough solutions and technologies that can substantially reduce schedules, risks, and uncertainties in the cleanup, the report says. This effort should be managed by ARPA-E, a DOE division that has a record of investing in innovative solutions for complex technical challenges; it would require substantial new funding, along with a different model for managing research and stimulating innovation.



Feb. 28, 2019


©iStock.com/monkeybusinessimagesIn light of the many costs generated by child poverty for the United States, a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provides evidence-based policy and program packages that could cut the child poverty rate by as much as 50 percent and increase employment and earnings among adults living in low-income families.



Feb. 20, 2019


©Wavetop/iStock.comA new report from the National Academies offers guidance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to inform the next revision of a permit program that requires industries to manage stormwater to minimize discharges of pollutants to the environment. The report recommends several ways that EPA can strengthen the Multi-Sector General Permit (MSGP) program to provide its intended environmental protection while balancing the overall burden of monitoring on industry.



Feb. 18, 2019


Ten years ago, Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine released . This landmark report stimulated a national discussion about the need to reform forensic science, fostered a re-evaluation of how forensic evidence is reported in court, prompted increased funding for forensic science research, and inspired reforms in practice and procedure for forensic science professionals. The report also led to re-examinations of forensic techniques that are frequently used in criminal investigations.



Feb. 13, 2019


NAS Elects Home Secretary and CouncilorsSusan R. Wessler, distinguished professor of genetics and Neil and Rochelle Campbell Presidential Chair for Innovation in Science Education, University of California, Riverside, has been for the National Academy of Sciences. Wessler will continue to be responsible for the membership activities of the Academy during her third four-year term. In addition, four members have been elected to serve on the Academy's governing Council for three years. All terms begin July 1.

The new councilors are:
• Patricia Kuhl, co-director of the Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences and the Bezos Family Foundation Professor of Early Childhood Learning, University of Washington;
• Richard E. Lenski, John Hannah Professor of Microbial Ecology, Michigan State University;
• Sean C. Solomon, director, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University; and
• Ruth J. Williams, distinguished professor of mathematics and Charles Lee Powell Chair in Mathematics I, University of California, San Diego.



Feb. 11, 2019


Marcia McNutt. Photo courtesy AAASIn a new , NAS President Marcia McNutt and several colleagues make the case for the creation of a U.S. advisory board for research integrity and quality, which would be "a central resource to which institutional leaders and other members of the scientific enterprise could turn for assistance in creating and sustaining cultures for reliable and efficient research."



Feb. 7, 2019


NAE Announces 2019 Class of New MembersOlivierclement of Engineering has elected 86 new members and 18 foreign members, announced NAE President C. D. (Dan) Mote, Jr., today. Election to the Academy is among the highest professional distinctions accorded to an engineer.



Feb. 7, 2019


Partnerships Between NASA and Industry Can Support Lunar ExplorationRenewed interest in exploration of the moon has the potential to benefit lunar science greatly and could evolve into a program facilitated by partnerships between commercial companies and NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), say companion reports by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. However, the two reports find that the activities undertaken to date, although aligned with community consensus for lunar science priorities, do not replace missions recommended in the National Academies' most recent planetary science decadal survey and remain subject to many unknowns, such as the ability of standardized commercial lunar landers to interface with complex science payloads.



Feb. 4, 2019


A Message from the Presidents of the NAS, NAE, and NAMMarcia McNutt, C. D. Mote, Jr., and Victor Dzau share their outlook for the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in 2019.



Jan. 28, 2019


Agnes Kalibata to Receive 2019 Public Welfare Medal Olivierclement of Sciences is presenting its 2019 Public Welfare Medal to agricultural scientist, policymaker, and visionary leader Agnes Kalibata "for her work to drive Africa's agricultural transformation through modern science and effective policy, helping to lift more than a million Rwandans out of poverty and scaling impacts for millions more African farmers." The medal is the Academy's most prestigious award, established in 1914 and presented annually to honor extraordinary use of science for the public good.

"Agnes Kalibata has long championed science and evidence as the basis for practical agricultural policies that have transformed Rwanda to a model of prosperity and security," said Marcia McNutt, president of the National Academy of Sciences. "Her actions exemplify science as a powerful force for growth and well-being, and we are thrilled to present her with our highest award."



Jan. 25, 2019


Academies' Climate Communications Initiative Releases Strategic PlanThe National Academies established the (CCI) last year to enable their extensive work on climate science, impacts, and response options to inform decision-makers and the public more effectively. A , which will guide the CCI's efforts going forward, has been developed by an , in cooperation with an Academies staff team. The advisory committee -- composed of experts in climate science, public and environmental health, science education, communication research and practice, brand strategy, industry, policy, and decision making -- will provide ongoing advice as the Academies implement the plan.



Jan. 23, 2019


NAS Honors 18 for Major Contributions to Science Olivierclement of Sciences will honor 18 individuals with awards in recognition of their extraordinary scientific achievements in a wide range of fields spanning the physical, biological, and medical sciences. The awards will be presented at a ceremony on Sunday, April 28, during the National Academy of Sciences' 156th annual meeting.



Jan. 18, 2019


Samples returned from the Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, should be designated unrestricted as the relative influx of Martian microbes from a Phobos/Deimos sample versus the natural influx of direct Mars-to-Earth transfer can be shown to be several orders of magnitude smaller, says a new report from the National Academies. The committee that wrote the report recommends that Phobos and Deimos should not currently be treated differently in their Planetary Protection requirements. The report also states that more research is needed before suggesting refinements in planetary protection requirements that might be needed to accommodate spacecraft missions to and samples returned from Phobos and Deimos.


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Read the latest Report to Congress, which details the National Academies' work in 2018.